- European Union, Directive (EU) 2016/2284 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 December 2016 on the reduction of national emissions of certain atmospheric pollutants, amending Directive 2003/35/EC and repealing Directive 2001/81/EC
Directive (EU) 2016/2284 should ‘contribute to achieving, in a cost effective manner, the air quality objectives set out in Union legislation and to mitigating climate change impacts in addition to improving air quality globally and to improving synergies with Union climate and energy policies’, as well as ‘contribut[ing] to the reduction of air pollution’. Its aim, ‘inter alia, is to protect human health’ [Source: Recitals n. 9, 11, 27].
- European Union, Directive 2009/123/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009 amending Directive 2005/35/EC on ship-source pollution and on the introduction of penalties for infringements
‘The purpose of Directive 2005/35/EC (3) and of this Directive is to approximate the definition of ship-source pollution offences committed by natural or legal persons, the scope of their liability and the criminal nature of penalties that can be imposed for such criminal offences by natural persons (…).Criminal penalties, which demonstrate social disapproval of a different nature than administrative sanctions, strengthen compliance with the legislation on ship-source pollution in force and should be sufficiently severe to dissuade all potential polluters from any violation thereof (…)’. The Directive also aims at ‘reinforc[ing] maritime safety and help[ing] prevent ship-source pollution’ in view of the ‘the need to ensure a high level of safety and protection of the environment’ [Source: Recitals n. 1, 3, 4, 10]
- European Union, Directive 2006/11/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 February 2006 on pollution caused by certain dangerous substances discharged into the aquatic environment of the Community
‘This Directive lays down rules for protection against, and prevention of, pollution resulting from the discharge of certain substances into the aquatic environment. It applies to inland surface water, territorial waters and internal coastal waters’ [Source: http://eur-lex.europa.eu].
- European Union, Directive 2005/35/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 September 2005 on ship-source pollution and on the introduction of penalties for infringements
Directive 2005/35/EC ‘creates rules that are applicable EU-wide on the imposition of penalties in the event of discharges of oil or other polluting substances from ships sailing in its waters’ [Source: http://eur-lex.europa.eu].